Mandibular Hyperplasia – Symptoms, Causes, and Surgical Treatment

Mandibular condylar hyperplasia ( CH ) is a condition that causes excessive growth of the condylar head and neck , as well as the mandible , creating functional and cosmetic deformities of the face and jaw .

Mandibular hyperplasia is defined by the developing of an abnormal condylar growth pattern . This disorder is self- limiting , and causes asymmetry and changes in jaw deformity . Lower hyperplasic mandible is often embossed on the affected side .

What is Mandibular hyperplasia ?

Mandibular condylar hyperplasia disorder is characterized by persistent or rapidly growing condyle when growth should be slowed or ended. This condition causes the development of the head, neck and jaw, causing significant functional and aesthetic facial deformities .

Dental disorders of craniofacial structures affect the normal growth of the jaw, resulting in gross changes in normal morphology and structure of hard and soft overlying tissue. The resulting asymmetry and significant functional deformities represent a major challenge for both orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons .

Lower hyperplasia causes

CH is caused by overdeveloped , aggressive growth of the condyle . The condition causes an abnormal growth in the jaw , which means that one side of the jaw stops growing sooner. This growth usually begins before the age of puberty , the maxilla following downward jaw and oral growth.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritits ( JIA ) and condylar fractures can cause disorders of growth and the lower jaw. Inflammatory and / or mechanical damage to the condylar cartilage often causes jaw ( upper) hyperplasia .

Lower hyperplasia symptoms

Lower hyperplasia symptoms include slowly progressive unilateral condylar growth of the head and neck . This causes crossbite malocclusion , facial asymmetry , and switch to the middle of the chin to the unaffected side . Characteristics of condylar hyperplasia may also include : posterior open bite or canting of the occlusal plane , depending on the time when the hyperplasia develops and asymmetry of the lower half of the face.

Characteristic symptoms of the lower hemi hyperplasia are asymmetrical face bones ( oversized lower facial bones on one side) .

Mandibular hyperplasia surgical treatment

If the height of the lower jaw is significantly increased, facial symmetry can improve the surgical reduction of the lower edge of the jaw. High condylectomy surgery effectively arrests disproportionate jaw growth while maintaining the normal function of the jaw.

Patients with active condylar hyperplasia are treated with high condylectomy , articular disc repositioning , and orthognathic surgery. They report stable, predictable results compared with those treated with orthognathic surgery.

Pathogenesis is most likely due to a break in condylar hyperactivity , which can be documented histologically by actively proliferating cartilage.

Hemimandibular hyperplasia including condyle requires more elaborate treatment planning as compared to these anomalies limited to the ramus and body of the mandible that require precise diagnosis provide appropriate treatment.

Will hyperplasia Growth stop by itself ?

Growth of the lower hyperplasia often stops without treatment. If growth is stopped, surgical orthodontics and mandibular repositioning can proceed.

Hemimandibular hyperplasia

Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a less defined, rarely asymmetric mandibular malformation . It’s a kind of lower hyperplasia . Hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle is a rare disorder that affects the (unilateral ) jaw. This is the way asymmetry of the hemifacial microsomia works . This differs from solitary lower hyperplasia which causes enlargement of both bottom jaw quadrants.

Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a developmental asymmetry characterized the three-dimensional expansion. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is one such developmental disorder observed to influence or affect the condyle and not extend beyond the center line or the symphysis region.

Hemimandibular hyperplasia and elongation undoubtedly constitute the most obscure conditions that are associated with prominent , often unilateral, abnormalities of condylar and mandibular growth .. Hyperplasia of the mandible commonly seen in relation to the condyle or affecting one half of the mandible , such cases are described as hemimandibular hyperplasia or stretching vs unilateral ( one-sided ) mandibular hyperplasia .